Marketing mix Nicosia model is a structural model of the purchase decision-making process by an individual consumer or a whole family. This model shows the interactive relationship between the company and the consumer.
The Buyer The Decider The User is the person in the family who plans to use the product being purchased.
The user may be a single person in the family or the whole family. For instance, if the purchase decision pertains to a car or television, it may be used by all family members.
When a purchase decision pertains to buying a mobile phone or a laptop, it may be for a single person in the family. The Influencer is the person who keeps the family members updated about products and services new to the market.
He convinces them to go in for the same. His influence plays a crucial role in the ultimate decision taken by the family members The Preparer is the person who gives a product its final shape in which it is actually going to be used by the users in the family.
Raw vegetables used for cooking food is an example for the Preparer role where one who cooks is involved in the process. The Gatekeeper is a person in the family who influences the family members to go in for products which they feel will be useful to them.
They safeguard the gates disallowing any product or service information that they dislike from reaching their family members. They help the family in decision making by filtering information or product attributes to make a purchase decision.
The Buyer is the person who actually buys the product. Irrespective of the different kinds of influences exerted by other member of the family, the person playing the role of the Buyer makes the final purchase of the product or service The Decider is the person in the family who has the money power to buy a product or service chosen for purchase.
Family members playing this role have an upper hand in the purchase decision. Family Decision making Model thus takes into account the many roles played by members of a family and their influence in decision making pertaining to purchase of products and services.
Information Processing IP is dependent on many factors which act as stimuli both from a marketing and non-marketing perspective, it consists of four components that are exposure, attention, comprehension and retention.
Information Processing focuses on the message to which the consumer is constantly exposed exposure. When the message instantly grabs the attention of the consumer attentionthe next logical step for him is to comprehend about the same in the rational manner comprehension.
When all of the activities happen in the perfect manner the message is retained in the memory of the consumer retention.
Previous experience of the consumers and their acquaintances about the product Criteria based on which a consumer evaluates a product Changing mindsets of consumers and Personality of the consumer based on which he or she takes the purchase decision.
A consumer processes and interprets all the information on the basis of the above four factors. The Decision process consists of recognizing the problem, internal and external information search, evaluating the alternatives available and finally purchasing the product.
This component deals with the post purchase satisfaction levels as well as dissatisfaction levels which play a crucial role in the future decision making process of the consumers. The Environmental influences consists of all those factors that may favour or disfavour the purchase decision like: Income level of consumers Financial status and social class in the society Family Influences and other societal factors etc.
Consumer Behaviour Models — Industrial Buying Model Industrial Buying Model deals with the cumbersome process involved in making purchase decisions in a typical industrial set up.
The decision making process related to purchase in an Industrial setup involves many Departments that are concerned with the same in a direct or indirect manner.
This model highlights three crucial characteristics involved in purchase decisions by Industries. Individuals who hail from different backgrounds, possessing varying psychological outlook are involved in the decision making process Joint decision making is inevitable in an Industrial setup Decisions pertaining to a purchase may lead to opinion clashes between concerned departments or individuals before an amicable solution is found Individuals in decision making capacities may be from various departments in an organization.
The committee that is formed for making purchase related decision may comprise individuals who Have different perceptions Have differing satisfaction levels related to past experience Obtain information from different sources Search experience that is totally dependent on their skills The purchase decision in an Industrial setup is dependent on many factors.
These factors may be specifically related to products or to the organization that manufactures the concerned products. The product specific factors are the kind of purchase done by consumers, probable risks involved in choosing a particular alternative and the pressure pertaining to the timely delivery of product.
The Organization Specific factors focus on solving problems that arise due to the purchase decision from time to time, the persuasion and bargaining issues connected with the same and other factors pertaining to situations that may arise every now and then.
Consumer Behaviour Models — Nicosia Model Nicosia Model deals with the level of exposure a consumer gets with respect to the purchase decision. This model is based on four fields such that the output of one field acts as the input of second field and so on.
The First field divided into two sub fields namely: Sub-field one consists of:Second, the Howard-Sheth model is limited to the individual decision-making process, whereas this model explicitly describes the joint decision-making process.
Finally, there are fewer variables in this model than in the Howard-Sheth model of buyer behavior. Nicosia model is a structural model of the purchase decision-making process by an individual consumer or a whole family. This model shows the interactive relationship between the .
Title: A Theory of Family Buying Decisions Author: Jagdish Sheth Subject: Family Buying Decisions Created Date: Monday, March 22, AM.
External variables that have not been presented in the Howard and Sheth model and are not direct part of the decision-making process, however, have a significant impact on consumer decisions and are used in marketing activities as a criterion for segmentation.
These include such variables as: value of purchase for the buyer, the character. Model of family decision making: In the context of family decision making process, understanding the interaction by family members with each other is important.
There are different consumption related roles played by family members.5/5(2). The Howard-Sheth model of buying behavior attempts to explain the complexity of the consumer decision making process in case of incomplete information.
This model suggests three levels of decision making A) Extensive problem solving/5(11).