This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Problematic computer use is a growing social issue which is being debated worldwide. Internet Addiction Disorder IAD ruins lives by causing neurological complications, psychological disturbances, and social problems.
Open in a separate window Source: However, data about substance use comorbidity must be interpreted cautiously because any causal associations may manifest on a behavioral level for example, alcohol use disinhibits a range of inappropriate behaviors, including those identified as addictive or on a syndromal level for example, a behavioral addiction starts after alcoholism treatment, possibly as a substitute for drinking.
Problem gamblers with frequent alcohol use have greater gambling severity and more psychosocial problems resulting from gambling than those without alcohol use histories 31and adolescents who are moderate to high frequency drinkers are more likely to gamble frequently than those who are not 32suggesting a behavioral interaction between alcohol and gambling.
In contrast, a similar finding regarding nicotine use suggests a syndromal interaction, as does the fact that adults with pathological gambling who are current or prior smokers had significantly stronger urges to gamble Problem gamblers who use tobacco daily are more likely to have alcohol and drug use problems Other psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, are also commonly reported in association with behavioral addictions 35,36; see also Weinstein and Lejoyeux, this issue.
However, many of these comorbidity studies were based on clinical samples. The extent to which these findings generalize to community samples remains to be determined. Neurocognition Behavioral addictions and substance use disorders may have common cognitive features.
Both pathological gamblers and individuals with substance use disorders typically discount rewards rapidly 37 and perform disadvantageously on decision-making tasks 38 such as the Iowa Gambling Task, a paradigm that assesses risk-reward decision making In contrast, a study of individuals with internet addiction demonstrated no such deficits in decision-making on the Iowa Gambling Task A study using a comprehensive neurocognitive battery in 49 pathological gamblers, 48 abstinent alcohol-dependent subjects, and 49 controls found that gamblers and alcoholics both showed diminished performance on tests of inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and planning tasks, but had no differences on tests of executive functioning Common Neurobiological Processes A growing body of literature implicates multiple neurotransmitter systems e.
In particular, serotonin 5-HTwhich is involved with inhibition of behavior, and dopamine, involved with learning, motivation, and the salience of stimuli, including rewards, may contribute significantly to both sets of disorders 42 Evidence for serotonergic involvement in behavioral addictions and substance use disorders comes in part from studies of platelet monoamine oxidase B MAO-B activity, which correlates with cerebrospinal fluid CSF levels of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid 5-HIAA, a metabolite of 5-HT and is considered a peripheral marker of 5-HT function.
Low CSF 5-HIAA levels correlate with high levels of impulsivity and sensation-seeking and have been found in pathological gambling and substance use disorders Pharmacologic challenge studies that measure hormonal response after administration of serotonergic drugs also provide evidence for serotonergic dysfunction in both behavioral addictions and substance use disorders The repetitive use of substances or engagement in a behavioral addiction following an urge may reflect a unitary process.
The ventral tegmental area contains neurons that release dopamine to the nucleus accumbens and orbital frontal cortex. Alterations in dopaminergic pathways have been proposed as underlying the seeking of rewards gambling, drugs that trigger the release of dopamine and produce feelings of pleasure Limited evidence from neuroimaging studies supports a shared neurocircuitry of behavioral addictions and substance use disorders 7.
Diminished activity of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex vmPFC has been associated with impulsive decision making in risk-reward assessments and with decreased response to gambling cues in pathological gamblers Similarly abnormal vmPFC functioning has been found in people with substance use disorders Problematic Internet Use (PIU), computer addiction, Internet dependence, compulsive Internet use, pathological Internet use, and many other labels can be found in the literature.
Likewise a variety of often overlapping criteria have been proposed and studied, some of which have been validated. Calls to any general helpline (non-facility specific XX numbers) for your visit will be answered by American Addiction Centers (AAC).
We are standing by 24/7 to discuss your treatment options. Our representatives work solely for AAC and will discuss whether an AAC facility may be an option for you. Internet Addiction Introduction While some media news and reports seem to be truthful in their effort to inform and educate the public regarding internet addiction, it is not surprising to see bad science and misinterpretation presented in others on the same issue.
An Internet or computer addiction is the excessive use of the former or the latter. The latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) actually includes it as a disorder that needs further study and research.
Use of the Internet is a way to escape from problems or to relieve a dysphoric mood. (e.g. Feelings of hopelessness, guilt, anxiety, depression.) What are the effects?
Internet addiction results in personal, family, academic, financial, and occupational problems that are characteristic of other addictions. OUTLINE Introduction What is Addiction? What is Internet Addiction? Types of Internet Addiction What makes internet use addictive?
Symptoms Consequences 3. Introduction With the growing importance of the internet in everyday life, more and more people areaccessing various on-line resources each day.