Projects may be audited or reviewed while the project is in progress. Formal audits are generally risk or compliance-based and management will direct the objectives of the audit. An examination may include a comparison of approved project management processes with how the project is actually being managed.
The retirement phase includes the activities of disposal and retirementthough in some models, activities such as service life extension or capability updates, upgrades, and modernization are grouped into the "retirement" phase.
Additional information on each of these stages can be found in the sections below see links to additional Part 3 articles above for further detail.
It is important to note that these life cycle stages, and the activities in each stage, are supported by a set of systems engineering management processes.
Exploratory Research Stage User requirements analysis and agreement is part of the exploratory research stage and is critical to the development of successful systems. Without proper understanding of the user needs, any system runs the risk of being built to solve the wrong problems.
The first step in the exploratory research phase is to define the user and stakeholder requirements and constraints. A key part of this process is to establish the feasibility of meeting the user requirements, including technology readiness assessment.
As with many SE activities this is often done iteratively, and stakeholder needs and requirements are revisited as new information becomes available.
Except for the first and last decision gates of a project, the gates are performed simultaneously. See Figure 6 below. Scheduling the Development Phases.
SEBoK Original Concept Stage During the concept stagealternate concepts are created to determine the best approach to meet stakeholder needs. By envisioning alternatives and creating models, including appropriate prototypes, stakeholder needs will be clarified and the driving issues highlighted.
This may lead to an incremental or evolutionary approach to system development. Several different concepts may be explored in parallel. Development Stage The selected concept s identified in the concept stage are elaborated in detail down to the lowest level to produce the solution that meets the stakeholder requirements.
Throughout this stage, it is vital to continue with user involvement through in-process validation the upward arrow on the Vee models. On hardware, this is done with frequent program reviews and a customer resident representative s if appropriate.
In agile development, the practice is to have the customer representative integrated into the development team. Production Stage The production stage is where the SoI is built or manufactured. Product modifications may be required to resolve production problems, to reduce production costs, or to enhance product or SoI capabilities.
Any of these modifications may influence system requirements and may require system re- qualificationre- verificationor re- validation. All such changes require SE assessment before changes are approved.
Utilization Stage A significant aspect of product life cycle management is the provisioning of supporting systems which are vital in sustaining operation of the product. While the supplied product or service may be seen as the narrow system-of-interest NSOI for an acquirerthe acquirer also must incorporate the supporting systems into a wider system-of-interest WSOI.
These supporting systems should be seen as system assets that, when needed, are activated in response to a situation that has emerged in respect to the operation of the NSOI. The collective name for the set of supporting systems is the integrated logistics support ILS system.
It is vital to have a holistic view when defining, producing, and operating system products and services. In Figure 7, the relationship between system design and development and the ILS requirements is portrayed.
All other rights are reserved by the copyright owner. The requirements for reliability, resulting in the need of maintainability and testability, are driving factors.
Support Stage In the support stage, the SoI is provided services that enable continued operation. Modifications may be proposed to resolve supportability problems, to reduce operational costs, or to extend the life of a system. · project life cycle objectives (2) concern the performance of each phase of the life cycle.
The project life cycle will differ, based on the nature of the individual caninariojana.com project performance.
Project Management Process. Typically, a project management process follows a flow similar to the “Plan-Do-Check-Act” cycle, defined by Shewhart and modified by Deming (from the ASQ Handbook, pages , )caninariojana.com · The iterative involvement with stakeholders is critical to the project success.
Except for the first and last decision gates of a project, the gates are performed simultaneously.
SE activities in this stage are primarily focused on ensuring that disposal requirements are satisfied. In fact, planning for disposal is part of the system caninariojana.com:_Vee. Project management is the practice of initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing the work of a team to achieve specific goals and meet specific success criteria at the specified time.
A project is a temporary endeavor designed to produce a unique product, service or result with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, . · Please take the quiz to rate it. Title of New (Duplicated) Quiz: Duplicate Quiz Cancel Success!
A copy of this quiz is in your dashboard. Questions about how long a project’s schedule should be are related to the issue of the project’s scope caninariojana.com?title=chpared-down. It lists the six characteristics used to measure project success and details the survey findings in relation to the four-phase project life cycle, identifying the key functions of--and project manager activities for- caninariojana.com › Learning › Library.